Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT)

Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) is a specialized therapeutic approach that focuses on understanding and addressing emotions to promote healing and growth. In this evidence-based method, clients are encouraged to explore their deep emotions, express feelings, and gain insights into their emotional experiences.

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EFT aims to create a safe and supportive environment where individuals can process unresolved emotions and develop healthier emotional responses.

What is Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT)?

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is a therapeutic method created for individuals, couples, and families. It integrates various therapeutic approaches including experiential therapy (like gestalt and person-centered approaches), systemic therapy, and attachment theory that human emotions are closely linked to human needs. 

By addressing these emotions, individuals can effectively alleviate distressing emotional states and enhance their interpersonal relationships. EFT is commonly implemented as a short-term treatment consisting of 8 to 20 sessions.

When is It Used?

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is specifically tailored for couples seeking to deepen their comprehension of both their own and their partner's emotions.

Johnson and Greenberg (1992) devised the EFT approach through a comprehensive examination of couple therapy sessions, utilizing task analysis to pinpoint the crucial elements that fostered positive transformation. Their approach embraced an experiential-systemic perspective, acknowledging that issues within relationships are often sustained through repetitive patterns and interactions between partners.

In EFT, emotions are perceived as individual experiences as well as integral components of the larger system shaped by the interactions between partners.

Emotion-focused Therapy: Stages and Steps

The main purpose of EFT is to help people confront their insecurities with attachment and further learn better ways to interact with people.

There are a total of nine steps within three stages of EFT:

Phase One – Assess and Deescalate Phase

During this stage, the couple is guided in recognizing and comprehending the detrimental cycle of distress created by their negative interactions.

Identify the Conflict

In the first step, the focus lies on identifying and acknowledging the key issues that are causing concern within the relationship.

Identify the Cycle Where Conflict is Expressed

Step two involves unveiling the negative patterns of interaction that emerge when these key issues arise. The therapist's objective is to pinpoint the underlying problem that leads to detachment or stress between the couple.

Access Unacknowledged Emotions

Step three revolves around acknowledging the unexpressed fears and negative emotions rooted in attachment that drive the negative interaction patterns. The partners delve into exploring each other's feelings and their connection to the harmful cycle of interaction.


In step four, the therapist provides a fresh perspective on the key issues, negative patterns, and underlying emotions and fears, framing them in relation to each individual's attachment needs.

Phase Two – Change Events Phase

This phase focuses on recognizing the underlying attachment styles that contribute to negative emotions. 

Promote Identification of Disowned Needs

In this stage, individuals are encouraged to openly express their desires, needs, and profound emotions within the therapeutic context. This step creates a safe space for partners to communicate their innermost thoughts and feelings, fostering vulnerability and emotional authenticity. By verbalizing their wants, needs, and deep emotions, individuals can gain a clearer understanding of their own inner experiences and effectively convey them to their partner.

Promote Partner Acceptance

The focus of Step 6 is on teaching partners how to express acceptance and compassion towards each other's needs and emotions. Partners are guided in developing empathetic listening skills, seeking to understand their significant other's experiences without judgment. By fostering an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion, partners can strengthen their emotional connection and create a sense of safety within the relationship.

Facilitate Expression of Needs and Wants

In Step 7, partners continue to deepen their ability to express their needs and emotions while also learning effective ways to address the issues that typically cause conflict. This stage involves developing communication skills to navigate challenging topics and conflictual situations. Partners learn strategies to engage in productive discussions, where they can express their concerns, needs, and emotions while actively listening to and validating their partner's perspective.This is done to promote constructive dialogue, mutual understanding, and problem-solving, leading to a resolution of conflicts and a strengthening of the relationship.

Phase Three – Consolidation of Change Phase

This phase involves consolidating and integrating the changes discussed with the therapist.

New Solutions

The therapist guides the couple in utilizing new communication techniques to address existing problems and generate innovative solutions. The focus is on applying the skills learned in therapy to real-life situations outside of the therapy sessions. The couple practices these new communication styles, fostering effective and constructive interaction patterns.

Creating Consistency and Integration

The couple develops a plan to incorporate the newly acquired interaction patterns into their daily lives. They work together to establish consistency in applying the skills and strategies learned in therapy. The goal is to make these positive changes a consistent and lasting part of the couple's relationship.

Emotion-focused Therapy: Who is It for?

EFT can be used in the case of Couples, Individuals and Families to develop emotional awareness. Let’s look at how that is done. 

Emotion-focused Therapy for Individuals

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is a valuable approach that aids individuals in uncovering the underlying sources of their issues, which can often be difficult to identify without professional guidance. By supporting individuals in exploring and comprehending the root causes of their emotions, therapists facilitate a process of working through these concerns. This therapeutic journey can lead to long-lasting relief from distressing emotions, fostering emotional well-being and personal growth.

Emotion-focused Therapy for Couples

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples utilizes a nine-step model, while emphasizing a spiral progression where each step naturally leads to the next.

The speed at which couples move through these steps depends on the level of distress within their relationship. Often, the root of couples' issues lies in core concerns such as self-worth or the need for validation. In such cases, therapeutic interventions that focus on individual self-development can be more effective than solely addressing family interactions.

Emotion-focused Therapy for Families

In family therapy, a similar approach is taken to identify conflicting patterns of interaction among family members. The same nine-step model used in couples therapy can be applied, following a spiral progression.

When working with families, it is often discovered that problems stem from underlying core concerns, such as issues with self-worth or the need for validation. In these cases, therapeutic interventions that target the individual's self-concept tend to be more effective than solely addressing family interactions.

EFT Techniques

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) employs a range of techniques tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of individuals or couples. These techniques, often referred to as "therapeutic tasks," have been identified through a detailed analysis of psychotherapy session transcripts, allowing therapists to target specific goals based on the clients' current situation.

Empathy-based Techniques

Empathy-based techniques in therapy utilize two key approaches: empathic exploration and empathic affirmation. Through empathic exploration, therapists delve into problem-relevant experiences, enabling clients to express and explore their emotions in a supportive environment. Empathic affirmation follows, which involves shifting painful emotions towards a place of self-affirmation. For instance, by identifying and acknowledging the feeling of vulnerability, a client can transition to a state of feeling understood, hopeful, and resilient. These techniques promote emotional healing and personal growth within the therapeutic process.

Relational Techniques

Relational techniques in therapy encompass various strategies aimed at fostering a strong therapeutic alliance. These techniques involve creating a conducive working environment, exploring goals collaboratively, and investing in the therapeutic process to enhance self-understanding.

While these techniques are commonly utilized in the initial stages of therapy, their relevance extends to moments when clients encounter challenges or disengage. In such instances, it becomes crucial to repair and strengthen the therapeutic alliance, providing an opportunity for deeper self-awareness and a stronger connection between the client and therapist.

Experiencing Techniques

Experiencing techniques in therapy encompass various approaches, such as creating a safe space, directing focus towards personal experiences, and teaching clients to identify and express their emotions effectively. Methods like systematic evocative unfolding and chair work are employed to facilitate the client's ability to express emotions in a healthy and appropriate manner. 

Reprocessing Tasks

Reprocessing tasks in therapy encompass both situational and perceptual aspects. These tasks involve addressing challenging or traumatic experiences through trauma retelling. Additionally, they may involve working through problematic reaction points. 

Action Tasks

Action tasks in therapy are centered around active engagement and practical interventions. These tasks often involve chair work techniques, such as two-chair dialogue and enactment, to address specific psychological splits or conflicts.

Genuine Interaction

Genuine interaction, within the context of Emotion-Focused Therapy, pertains to establishing an honest and sincere connection between the therapist and client. It entails the therapist's ability to genuinely understand, accept, and respond to the client's emotions and experiences without judgment. 

Normalizing, Mirroring, or Reflecting:

In Emotion-Focused Therapy, the process of normalizing involves therapists supporting clients in recognizing and accepting that their emotional reactions are valid and understandable given their unique experiences. By doing so, it fosters self-acceptance and diminishes feelings of isolation or abnormality.

Track and Reflect the Problem Cycles

The track and reflect technique in Emotion-Focused Therapy involves therapists aiding clients in identifying, observing, and comprehending their recurring patterns of emotional responses and interactions. By bringing these unconscious processes to conscious awareness, it promotes self-awareness and creates opportunities for meaningful change.

Interrupt and Redirect

The interrupt and redirect approach in Emotion-Focused Therapy entails therapists intervening in a client's negative emotional cycle. They offer alternative perspectives or suggest new behaviors to break unhelpful patterns. The aim is to guide the client towards healthier emotional responses and facilitate personal growth.

Impact of Emotion-focused Therapy on Your Health

Emotion-focused therapy is known to be beneficial for a plethora of scenarios, treating depression and anxiety being two of them:


In individuals experiencing depression, there is often a tendency to avoid various situations in their daily lives. This avoidance can contribute to a persistent low mood and potentially perpetuate a negative cycle. Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) aims to empower individuals to confront these challenging situations with increased agency and resilience. While EFT does not provide a cure for depression, it equips individuals with valuable tools to effectively manage symptoms and prevent the exacerbation of negative emotions.


Individuals struggling with severe anxiety often find themselves overwhelmed by a sense of emotional dysregulation. The pervasive presence of fear and worry can significantly impact their daily functioning. Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) aims to empower individuals by helping them distinguish between helpful and unhelpful emotions, fostering improved self-regulation. 

Top 3 Activities and Interventions

When administering Emotionally Focused Therapy, there are three widely used activities and interventions that are used. They are:

Emotional Mental Models

The Emotional Mental Models exercise is an effective activity utilized in Emotionally-Focused Therapy to facilitate the development of emotional awareness among clients through the practice of visualization techniques.

This exercise is specifically designed to encourage individuals to reflect on their emotional insights and consider how they can apply this newfound understanding in their future experiences and interactions. By engaging in the Emotional Mental Models exercise, clients can enhance their ability to navigate and utilize emotions effectively, ultimately fostering personal growth and well-being.

DBT Exercise

A DBT (Dialectical Behavior Therapy) exercise is used which is aimed at assisting clients in effectively managing intense negative emotions and experiences. It serves as a practical tool to help clients recognize and accept the reality that they cannot exert control over every aspect of their lived experiences. By embracing this understanding, clients can begin to navigate their distressing emotions by moving beyond the need to change or control external circumstances. 

Struggle or Acceptance

Through this exercise, clients have the opportunity to assess their level of difficulty or acceptance regarding their negative thoughts and emotions. By engaging in this activity, they can explore and brainstorm practical strategies to foster a healthier and more balanced relationship with their emotional experiences. 

What EFT Can Help With

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) offers valuable support for couples facing challenges such as conflict, distress, and ineffective communication. While widely utilized in couples therapy, EFT can also be beneficial in individual and family therapy settings.

In individual therapy, EFT helps individuals address and enhance their emotional well-being by targeting emotion-related difficulties. Additionally, in family therapy, EFT assists family members in developing secure and nurturing bonds with one another.

EFT is particularly beneficial for couples dealing with various issues, including those affected by addiction, depression, chronic illness, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By applying EFT principles and techniques, these couples can navigate and overcome the unique emotional complexities associated with these challenges, promoting healing and improved relationship dynamics.

Benefits of Emotionally Focused Therapy

Here are some of the benefits that individuals, couples and families can gain from Emotionally Focused Therapy.

Better Emotional Functioning

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) offers a framework that promotes healthy interdependence and examines crucial actions and pivotal moments that shape adult romantic relationships. The core objective of this therapeutic model is to broaden and restructure the emotional responses within the couple's dynamic. By focusing on these aspects, EFT aims to enhance the emotional connection and overall well-being of the couple.

Stronger Bonds

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is rooted in attachment theory, which posits that human connections and relationships serve as a secure haven, offering solace, safety, and a means of finding comfort, security, and resilience in the face of life's challenges. This therapeutic approach recognizes the fundamental importance of healthy attachments in promoting emotional well-being and providing a supportive buffer against stress and adversity.

Improved Interpersonal Understanding

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) facilitates an increased awareness of one's partner's needs, enabling individuals to engage in active listening and constructive problem-solving. This heightened awareness allows for discussions and conflict resolution to occur from a foundation of empathy, rather than defensiveness or anger. By fostering a deeper understanding and empathy towards their partner, individuals can cultivate healthier and more fulfilling relationships within the context of EFT.

How EFT Relates to Positive Psychology

Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and positive psychology share common goals of promoting well-being and improving lives, albeit through different approaches. Positive psychology emphasizes enhancing strengths and positive emotions to foster flourishing, while EFT focuses on transforming interpersonal relationships by addressing emotional patterns and promoting secure attachments. Although not explicitly aligned with positive psychology, EFT indirectly contributes to positive outcomes by improving relationship dynamics, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. 

How to Find an Emotionally-focused Therapist

When it comes to finding a therapist experienced in Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT), we recognize that the search can feel overwhelming and time-consuming. At Mindtalk, we strive to ease your worries by offering a team of skilled therapists who specialize in EFT.

Our dedicated EFT experts are committed to delivering exceptional care and guidance as you embark on your therapeutic path. With their specialized knowledge and experience, they can help you navigate the intricacies of your emotional well-being and relational dynamics.


What are the major assumptions of emotion-focused therapy?

Emotion-Focused Therapy assumes that emotions are vital in shaping human experiences and that accessing and processing emotions promotes healing.

What is a contraindication for emotionally focused therapy?

A contraindication for Emotionally Focused Therapy is severe untreated mental health disorders that require immediate stabilization.

How long does emotion-focused therapy last?

Emotion-Focused Therapy typically ranges from 8 to 20 sessions, with the duration varying based on the unique needs of the individual or couple.

Is Emotion-Focused Therapy person-centered?

Emotion-Focused Therapy incorporates person-centered elements by emphasizing empathy, understanding, and validation of the individual's emotional experiences.

How effective is emotionally focused therapy?

Emotionally Focused Therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in improving relationship satisfaction, emotional well-being, and promoting lasting positive changes in couples.

How effective is emotion-focused coping?

Emotion-focused coping can be effective in managing and regulating emotions, reducing distress, and promoting adaptive psychological well-being and resilience.

What does emotion-focused therapy integrate?

Emotion-Focused Therapy integrates elements of experiential therapy, attachment theory, systemic therapy, and humanistic approaches to promote emotional healing and relational growth.

What is the difference between emotion-focused therapy and emotionally focused therapy?

There is no difference between Emotion-Focused Therapy and Emotionally Focused Therapy, as they refer to the same therapeutic approach.

What is the role of the therapist in emotionally focused therapy?

The role of the therapist in Emotionally Focused Therapy is to facilitate a safe and supportive environment, guide emotional exploration, and promote secure attachment bonds within the therapeutic relationship.

Why Mindtalk?

Mindtalk is a leading mental health provider from the Cadabams family bringing new-age therapeutic experiences. ‍